Humana People to People

Humana People to People

Wanted are Leaders for a TB-free world!

World TB Day, falling on March 24th each year, is designed to build public awareness that tuberculosis today remains an epidemic in much of the world. Humana People to People join the rest of the world in commemorating the World TB Day.

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The event in 2018 is marked under the theme “Wanted: Leaders for a TB-free world”. There is a great need to mobilize political and social commitment for further progress towards eliminating TB as a public health burden. Stop TB Partnerships reveal that TB remains the world’s leading infectious killer, being responsible for the deaths of nearly 1.7 million people each year and representing the ninth leading cause of death globally.

The members of Humana People to People in Asia and Southern Africa are taking an active role in working closely with the national governments’ efforts in fighting the further spread of TB. Many community based actions are being implemented supporting TB case identification and referral of TB medical diagnosis and TB treatment. All the Humana People to People TB interventions are contributing to the World Health Organization strategy which aims at ending the global TB epidemic, with targets formulated to achieve reduction of TB deaths by 95% and to cut new TB cases by 90% between 2015 and 2035, and to ensure that no family is burdened with catastrophic expenses due to TB.


TC TC spatum collection


What is TB and how does it spread?

TB is an abbreviation of the word Tuberculosis and TB is how people often refer to the disease. It is caused by the bacteria called Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tuberculosis). TB is spread from one person to another through the air. You get TB by breathing in TB bacteria in the air. Bacteria get released into the air by someone who already has the bacteria in their body.

The bacteria that usually cause the disease in humans, usually affect the lungs, but can affect other parts of the body.

Understanding TB as a disease

TB disease is what happens when a person has latent TB and then becomes sick. Sometimes this is known as having active TB. Center for Disease Control and Prevention states that on overall, 5 to 10% of people with latent TB, who do not receive treatment for it, will become sick at some time in their lives.

Some people become sick soon after they have become infected, other people do not get sick at first but they get sick years later when their immune system becomes weak for another reason. This can be because they have an infection, such as HIV, or some other health problem. The risk to some specific population groups is much higher and this includes infants and children aged less than 4, people infected within the previous two years, people who are infected with HIV, terminally ill persons and people who have certain illnesses or conditions which affect their immune system, such as people with diabetes, and people with chronic renal failure.

If someone has drug resistant TB it means that the bacteria in their body would not be affected by certain drugs that they are resistant to. The drugs just would not work. There are two main reasons why people develop it. It can be because the person doesn’t take the drugs properly. It can also be that the bacteria they are infected with have come from someone who has already got drug resistant TB. Being drug sensitive is the opposite of being drug resistant.

tb Community volunteers training by the local nurse


Humana People to People and community based TB prevention actions

Total Control of Tuberculosis is empowering every individual to fight TB and HIV through repeated mobilization, information dissemination, education, referral for medical attention, treatment and community based basic counseling including follow-up support.

The program uses its unique strategy of mobilizing people to know their HIV status, screening for TB as well as collecting sputum from the doorstep to the laboratory and bringing the results back to the household. This strategy has reached many people who ordinarily would not seek out knowledge or treatment of TB.

Currently there are TB programs which are benefiting hundreds of thousands of people in Angola, Malawi, India, Mozambique and Zimbabwe. More countries are also working with TB epidemic through the Total Control of the Epidemic or HOPE Humana project types.

TC TB projects work closely with community leaders, the Ministry of Health and particularly the department of TB and infectious disease in adhering to national TB policy requirements. In specific countries technical support is given by other specialized TB organizations.

In India, 11 493 people were identified with TB symptoms, of which the Humana People to People India’s HIV and TB prevention project referred 8 081 TB symptomatic individuals to be tested at Diagnostic Medical Centers and of these,

1 414 people were detected with TB in 2017. The program is running in New Delhi and Uttar Pradesh states.

In Mozambique, ADPP Mozambique is implementing Total Control of Tuberculosis in Nampula and Zambezia provinces which is part of a larger program called Challenge TB led by FHI360. In 2017 the project reached almost 63 000 people with TB awareness and knowledge about how to prevent, recognize the symptoms and adhere to the treatment. 5 176 people got diagnosed with TB and started the treatment. By the end of the year 1 278 persons were cured and others are still on treatment.  

In Malawi, DAPP Malawi’s TC TB Thyolo have 670 Community Volunteers and 24 Community Health Workers reaching 31 272 people with TB and HIV and AIDS prevention messages. 3 988 people were screened for TB, while 1 630 sputum samples were collected for laboratory tests at health centers. Nutrition supplements were given to the patients to improve their nutrition status and overcome the heavy pill burden.

In Zimbabwe, during the course of 2017, the DAPP Zimbabwe’s TC TB Makoni project reached 38 253 people in Makoni district, Manicaland province. The door-to-door community mobilization activities have resulted in many people voluntarily seeking TB tests at the local health clinics. Sputum was collected from 925 people out of which 10 people were found to be infected by TB and were enrolled for treatment.

Collectively, we can Press for Progress to achieve Gender Equality

learners and teacher we do more teachers

Collective action and shared ownership for driving gender parity is what makes International Women's Day successful. Humana People to People joins the rest of the world in marking the International Women’s Day on 8 March. In 2018, the day is being commemorated under the theme Press for Progress.

Humana People to People has been and still is committed to providing women and girls with equal access to education, health care, decent work, and representation in community development processes. The transformation of lives demands equality among mankind in influencing societal challenges affecting development. 


12. TTC Maputo Governor of Maputo Province at the graduation ceremony of the 2015 team. 1


Gender equality is at the forefront of the 2030 Development Agenda. The Sustainable Development Goals include a stand-alone goal to advance equality, and gender-related targets are integrated across most of the UN Global Goals. Something has opened a door for drastic progress in the lives of women and girls worldwide: it is the principle of leaving no one behind. Now, more than ever, there is a strong call-to-action to press forward and progress gender parity. There is a strong call to press for progress motivating and uniting friends, colleagues and whole communities to think, act and be gender inclusive.

Why women's empowerment matters so much?

Inequalities faced by girls can begin right at birth and follow them all their lives. In some countries, girls are deprived of access to health care or proper nutrition, leading to a higher mortality rate. Humana People to People share the belief that successfully harnessing and mobilizing half of the world’s total talent pool has a huge impact on transformation of lives across the globe. Unfortunately, data shows that the gender gap is widening. The Global Gender Gap Report of 2017 indicates that progress is regressing and moving backwards. Instead of taking 170 years to close the gap at the current rate of progress, it is estimated that gender parity across the world will take over two centuries, 217 years to be exact. 

Through education, a girl is building her own future, beyond that, the future of her community. The facts from SDG 5, which is about achieving gender equality and empowering all women and girls, reveal that in Sub-Saharan Africa, Oceania and Western Asia, girls still face barriers to entering both primary and secondary school. Further the UN Women make it clear that every year, an estimated 15 million girls under 18 are married worldwide, with little or no say in the matter, and further about 62 million girls are denied education. 

Achieving Gender Equality benefits Us All 

Regardless of where you live, gender equality is a fundamental human right. Advancing gender equality is critical to all areas of a healthy society, from reducing poverty to promoting the health, education, protection and the well-being of girls and boys. 


SRHR lesson at Katoni Primary


There is ample evidence that investing in women is the most effective way to lift families, communities and even countries. Women’s participation makes peace agreements stronger, societies more resilient and economies more vigorous. Where women face discrimination, we often find practices and beliefs that are detrimental to all. Enacting legislature which give women power to own land and other properties, the abolishment of early marriages, ending Female Genital Mutilation, laws against domestic violence and equal pay legislation benefit everyone. 

The Sustainable Development Goal 5 indicates evidence to the fact that investing in education programmes for girls and increasing the age at which they marry can return $5 for every dollar spent. Investing in programs improving income-generating activities for women can return $7 dollars for every dollar spent.

At this crucial moment for women’s rights, it is time for men to stand with women, listen to them and learn from them. 

What is Humana People to People doing about Gender Equity?

Humana People to People values gender equality as a human right issue, but it is also in all of the organization’s interests: men and boys, women and girls standing as equal members of society. Gender inequality and discrimination against women harm all of us. Humana People to People mobilizes families and entire communities as it implements social projects which treat girls and boys without bias.

Awareness campaigns are carried out in Child Aid actions targeting ending early marriages. Humana People to People Botswana and DAPP Zimbabwe are actively working together with community members to increase knowledge on dangers of engaging in early marriages. Such programs are supported with the government law enforcement agency in order to strengthen deterrence and curb further occurrence of negative cultural practices. 

ADPP Angola is organizing 22 500 girls in the age range from 10 to 24 years in clubs, where they are informed and mobilized on prevention of HIV and unwanted pregnancies in three provinces of Angola. The project is again targeting 7 500 of the girls into getting an HIV test as it collaborate with 76 local nurses at the health centers.  Further, there are 79 teachers or educational professionals participating in the project from primary and secondary schools. The nurses receive refresher courses about Sexual Transmitted Diseases including HIV and AIDS, Sexual and Reproductive Health education, counselling to teenagers about disease prevention, and testing for and treatment of HIV. Training of teachers takes the form of courses in physical, emotional and behavioral changes in adolescents girls and youths, and sessions about how to deal with these changes. 

In India, Humana People to People India is achieving financial inclusion for rural poor women who are denied access to business financial capital. The Humana Microfinance provides loans to women in impoverished rural regions of India for a range of income-generating activities with the objective of eliminating poverty. Microfinance is the system of providing formal institutional credit to those who otherwise have no access to financial services, and is a pertinent tool in achieving financial inclusion of women and their empowerment. 

During the course of 2017 the initiative has focused on building sustainable income generating opportunities for 36 000 rural women. 59% of the women have received financial support and bought buffalos and cows. Non-farm activities constituted 18.5% of the fund borrowings and the rest was availed to farm based activities reflecting a strong will to service rural poor households.

Humana People to People Teacher Training program is developed with a goal to increase access to education and thus reduce high illiteracy rates in poor countries of Africa and Asia.  In order to guarantee universal access to education, Humana People to People do prioritize training of qualified primary school teachers. 2017 has seen a marked improvement in the number of female students who are graduating from the teacher training colleges in Mozambique, Malawi and Angola. Out of the 1 110 graduates from ADPP Angola’s 15 teacher training colleges 40% were female, whereas for Mozambique the 11 teacher training colleges graduated 1 581 qualified teachers of whom 48% were female, and in Malawi, the 4 teacher training colleges graduated 316 primary school teachers out of whom 65% are female. The remarkable figures are a huge leap forward in gender equality considering the cultural barriers and patriarch systems embedded in the communities.

Thanks to the 50% gender equality policy at recruitment within the teacher training colleges it has gone a long way in changing the perception of how female teachers are viewed and accepted in the teaching profession and in the communities they carry out their teaching practice. 


Woman in thw shop she started after getting entrepeneur training


The majority of the rural farmers are women. They labour the farm, provide livelihoods to their families despite the many challenges, among them lack of land ownership rights in some countries and natural disasters. Humana People to People supports about 65 000 small-scale farmers in Africa of whom 67% are women. The support is offered through the innovative Farmers’ Clubs program, which aims to reduce rural poverty, improve food security and increase the sustainability of livelihoods and ecosystems. The program organizes farmers in self-support groups and provides them with support and capacity building in climate smart agriculture, establishing market linkages and improving farm management.

Humana People to People remains committed to the global call to press for progress in achieving gender equality. Achieving gender equality and empowering women and girls is the unfinished business of our time, and the greatest human rights challenge in our world.

Local language education is key to better learning outcomes in Africa

On Tuesday we celebrated International Mother Language Day, in recognition of the multitude of indigenous languages spoken around the world. This year’s theme was “Linguistic diversity and multilingualism count for sustainable development”, acknowledging the vital role that local languages play in eradicating poverty and achieving the SDGs.


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On the continent of Africa, 2,144 native languages are in daily use, forming a cornerstone of local identity and a key tool for preservation of Africa's diverse cultural heritages. Yet the value of local language is not reserved for cultural preservation alone - local languages play an undeniable role in educational attainment, and their absence in education systems has the power to significantly hinder the academic achievements of children around the world. This must change.


Maternal Languages

Unfortunately, many African higher education systems still operate solely through a foreign language – Portuguese, French or English. These artefacts of colonialism continue to be taught on the belief that a working knowledge of an international language is helpful for students, and that one language can strengthen national unity, boost economic growth, and improve the career prospects of younger generations. Indeed, across sub-Saharan Africa, English is often the medium of instruction in basic education. Yet legitimate questions arise when assessing whether this is truly the most effective method to enhance education and communication for African children. 

In Mozambique, Portuguese is the language of instruction in most schools. When a child who speaks a local language at home enters a classroom where lessons are taught in Portuguese, they struggle to understand the teacher, which typically contributes to low academic performance. This is a scenario played out in schools across sub-Saharan Africa, where children suffer unnecessarily at the hand of archaic education systems. Thankfully, the situation is beginning to change.


As part of a USDA-funded consortium to support primary education, improve learning outcomes and assist in government-led literacy programmes, I have been a part of an ongoing project that is demonstrating the benefits of using the local mother tongue as the first language of instruction. Our project partnership - which includes Planet Aid from the United States, ADPP Mozambique, and Cambridge Education - have measured significant progress in learning outcomes when the local languages of Changana and Rhonga are taught in schools. Our results are consistent with an overwhelming body of evidence that indicates that those who are taught in their mother tongue fare far better academically. 

To make mother-tongue language instruction a reality in Mozambique, ADPP Mozambique, in collaboration with the Ministry of Education, has produced teaching and learning materials in two Mozambican languages: Changana and Rhonga.  The materials include a sequenced array for both 1st and 2nd grades of reading practice books, read-aloud books and de-codable books. With access to these new reading materials in their mother tongue, children have developed reading and writing skills more easily and quickly, and are able to use it as a foundation for learning to read and write in Portuguese. This is a key and vital step in helping Mozambique achieve the UN’s Sustainable Development Goal 4: Ensure inclusive and quality education for all and promote lifelong learning.

To help reach SDG 4, others are joining the mother-tongue movement.  Last week, the BBC launched two new language services – Igbo and Yoruba – that will join Amharic, Afaan Oromo and Tigrinya among the other languages commissionedOther stakeholders strongly supporting bilingual education in Mozambique include USAID and UNESCO.

Of course, the question of mother-tongue instruction resonates deeper than achieving SDG 4, and the question of cultural identity remains an important one. Allowing students to learn to read and write in their maternal language is a crucial part of preserving Mozambican culture and identity. More widely, respect for cultural and linguistic diversity leads to peace, social cohesion and sustainable development. 


We cannot allow indigenous languages to fade; they carry complex implications for identity, communication, and social integration and are key to fostering sustainable development. It has been proven that children learn better in their mother-tongue, and, as such, colonial languages must not continue to dominate curriculums. Schemes that encourage learning in a student’s mother-tongue must become common practice for educational institutions across the continent, to ensure an inclusive and quality education for all.

Birgit Holm is the director of ADPP Mozambique, a Mozambican development organization that has been implementing education, health, agriculture and community development projects for more than 30 years.  Planet Aid, Cambridge Education, the World Initiative for Soy in Human Health and ADPP Mozambique are together implementing a comprehensive US Department of Agriculture–funded education project in Mozambican primary schools, which is providing students with a daily lunch, building needed infrastructure, training teachers, and, as described here in, developing a pioneering mother-tongue literacy program.


I am Roberto Neves Cuinica, a 35-year-old teacher at Manguendene Primary School. I have been teaching there for nine years, of which seven years were with grades one to three. During my teaching career, I have encountered many children who struggle with common challenges, a main one being low performance in Portuguese classes.

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Reinforcement of Reading and Writing, the literacy component of the Food for Knowledge Project (FFK), is being implemented by Planet Aid and ADPP Mozambique, in partnership with the Mozambican Ministry of Education and Human Development, and financed by USDA.

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